A new paper has been published by Konstantinou et al. (2018) from Cyanolab AUTH, in PlosOne. The authors summarize the global diversity of sponge species hosting cyanobacteria, as well as the diversity of cyanobacterial symbionts and provide a detailed list, along with new data from the Aegean Sea, a previously unexplored eastern ecoregion. The evaluation of the literature along with the new data from the Aegean Sea raised the number of sponge species known for hosting cyanobacteria to 320 and showed that the cyanobacterial diversity reported from sponges is yet underestimated. Highlight of the research is the isolation of nine cyanobacteria strains (only 19 cyanobacteria strains have been isolated to date from sponges). The nine isolated cyanobacteria were found to form novel clades within Synechococcus, Leptolyngbyaceae, Pseudanabaenaceae, and Schizotrichaceae. This is the first report of a Schizotrichaceae cyanobacterium associated with sponges. The results of this research propose the occurrence of new sponge-cyanobacteria associations and new cyanobacteria taxa.
Konstantinou D, Gerovasileiou V, Voultsiadou E, Gkelis S (2018) Sponges- Cyanobacteria associations: Global diversity overview and new data from the Eastern Mediterranean. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0195001. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195001
The Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics is looking for 3 excellent PhD candidates in sponge biology / coral reef ecology to join our team.
EU ERC Starting Grant: SPONGE ENGINE — Fast and efficient sponge engines drive and modulate the food web of reef ecosystems
Coral reefs are iconic examples of biological hotspots, highly appreciated because of their ecosystem services. Yet, they are threatened by human impact and climate change, highlighting the need to develop tools and strategies to curtail changes in these ecosystems. Remarkably, ever since Darwin’s descriptions of coral reefs, it has been a mystery how one of Earth’s most productive and diverse ecosystems thrives in oligotrophic seas, as an oasis in a marine desert. Our team recently discovered the ‘sponge loop’ pathway (De Goeij et al. Science 2013) that efficiently retains and transfers energy and nutrients on the reef. We recognized sponges as potential (and so far neglected) key ecosystem drivers, and accumulated evidence on sponge loops in other ecosystems, such as deep-sea coral reefs. As a result, current reef food web models, lacking sponge-driven resource cycling, are incomplete and need to be redeveloped. However, mechanisms that determine the capacity of sponge ‘engines’, how they are fuelled, and drive communities are unknown.
The aim of this ERC project is to systematically establish the novel reef food web framework, integrating sponges as key ecosystem drivers. To this end, sponges will be evaluated on functional traits (morphology, associated microbes, pumping rate) in the processing of dissolved food, the main fuel of the engine. At the community level, we will assess to what extent these different traits are a driving force in structuring reef ecosystems, from fuel input (primary producers) to engine output (driving and modulating the consumer food web). This framework derived from a Caribbean reef ecosystem will then be implemented in a sponge-driven food web model, a much-needed foundation to test and predict future scenarios of changes in reef communities. Ultimately, we will test and generalize the novel food web framework at a tropical Indo-Pacific, a temperate Mediterranean, and a cold-water North-Atlantic reef.
See details for those positions in the Euraxess page.