Can Microcystis spp. blooms be used in animal feeds?

A recent paper by Chen et al. published in Science of the Total Environment reviews the challenges of using blooms of Microcystis spp. in animal feeds.

Highlights (from the paper):

  • Microcystis causes toxicity to mollusks, crustaceans, fish, amphibians, mammals and birds.
  • Microcystis induces toxicity in liver, kidney, intestine, spleen and other organs.
  • Fish fed Microcystis may be not safe for consumption for humans.
  • Microbial pathogens may be present in cyanobacterial blooms.


Liang Chen, John P. Giesy, Ondrej Adamovsky, Zorica Svirčev, Jussi Meriluoto, Geoffrey A. Codd, Biljana Mijovic, Ting Shi, Xun Tuo, Shang-Chun Li, Bao-Zhu Pan, Jun Chen, Ping Xie.
Challenges of using blooms of Microcystis spp. in animal feeds: A comprehensive review of nutritional, toxicological and microbial health evaluation. Science of The Total Environment, Volume 764, 2021,

Frontiers topic: Global Intensification of Cyanobacterial Blooms: The Driving Forces and Mitigation Approaches

This Frontiers Research Topic presents research papers and reviews that explore novel approaches expanding our understanding of the development of toxic phytoplankton blooms and their immense performance in a changing environment, with particular focus on Microcystis sp. It aims to address various aspects of cyanobacterial blooms including the following:

• abiotic and biotic drivers of cyanobacteria blooms

• biological role of secondary metabolites, including cyanotoxins, in the bloom’s lifecycle,

• allelopathic and info-chemical interactions between microorganisms involved in toxic blooms,

• competition in host/parasite interactions, including cy-anophages,

• novel strategies for mitigation of cyanobacterial blooms.

Topic Editors:

Aaron Kaplan, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel),
Rainer Kurmayer, University of Innsbruck, Austria,
Assaf Sukenik, Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences, University of Haifa, Migdal, Israel.

Deadline for submission of abstracts: 01 April 2020.

Link to the webpage of this Frontiers Topic


Everything you always wanted to know about cyanobacteria (but were afraid to ask)

A review on “Cyanobacterial Blooms” by top-experts in the field has recently been published in Nature Reviews Microbiology (June 2018). The review presents evidence indicating that cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in frequency, magnitude and duration globally. It discusses the traits involved in cyanobacteria dominance and bloom development, environmental drivers, production  and modes of action of cyanotoxins and strategies for bloom prevention and control. There is also a special section about historical observations of algal blooms.

The review has references to 188 published articles, with annotations to key publications. This is a must-read for both beginners and experienced scientists in the field.


Jef Huisman, Geoffrey A. Codd, Hans W. Paerl, Bas W. Ibelings, Jolanda M.H. Verspagen and Petra Visser (2018). Cyanobacterial Blooms. Nature Reviews Microbiology.



Toxins Special Issue “Causes, Consequences and Control of Cyanobacterial Blooms in a Changing World”

Toxins, an Open Access Toxinology Journal is preparing a special issue titled “Causes, Consequences and Control of Cyanobacterial Blooms in a Changing World”.

Guest Editor : Prof. Dr. Miquel Lürling (Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2017

“This Special Issue invites manuscripts on all aspects dealing with cyanobacterial blooms in a changing world: from warming, eutrophication, carbon dioxide, salinity, brownification effects on cyanobacteria and/or their toxins via biotic interactions such as competition, predation, parasitism, and so on, to techniques mitigating cyanobacterial biomass and controlling toxins. Contributions from areas of the planet underrepresented in the scientific literature are particularly welcome.” Prof. Dr. Miquel Lürling, Guest Editor.

See more details in the Special Issue page.


Jussi Meriluoto presents “The Uzice case” at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris

Jussi Meriluoto gives a seminar titled “The Uzice case” on 19 January 2017 at the Bio-organic Mass-Spectrometry Technical Platform of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle in Paris.


The Uzice case. (J. Meriluoto, Z. Svircev). Abstract:

An intensive bloom of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens was observed in the Vrutci reservoir in December 2013. The blooming reservoir served as the drinking water source for the city of Užice, Serbia, with 70,000 inhabitants. Filaments of the cyanobacterium were found in the treated water and there were complaints about discoloured tap water. The MC-LR concentration in a drinking water sample was below the WHO provisional guideline value (1 µg/L) according to analyses provided by the Institute of Public Health Serbia. Despite this, the Sanitary Inspectorate of the Republic of Serbia decided to ban the use of tap water for drinking and cooking purposes to protect the health of the inhabitants of Užice. The situation soon resulted in unrest among the citizens. The toxicity of the cyanobacterial biomass was first shown by A. salina bioassays. Microcystin(s) were later detected by LC-MS/MS in samples of the reservoir and tap water, and in fish captured from the reservoir. Data about the water use and the health of the inhabitants were collected with the help of a questionnaire which clearly indicated a number of health issues. An epidemiological investigation also showed an elevated occurrence of digestive tract and skin diseases compared to earlier years, possibly as a result of exposure to the cyanobacterial material/metabolites. Based on the evidence found, it is likely that a cyanobacterial bloom occurred in the reservoir already before 2013. Lessons from the Užice case are many. The presentation discusses i) the importance of interaction between academia and authorities, ii) proper monitoring of cyanobacterial hazards, iii) the necessity of adequate information and advice to the general public, iv) guidelines and legislation, and v) collection of exposure and health data complementary to analytical results. Further, the authors would like to underline the recurrent role of Planktothrix sp. in drinking water quality problems.

Further reading:

Svirčev, Z., D. Drobac, N. Tokodi, D. Đenić, J. Simeunović, A. Hiskia, T. Kaloudis, B. Mijović, S. Šušak, M. Protić, M. Vidović, A. Onjia, S. Nybom, T. Važić, T. Palanački Malešević, T. Dulić, D. Pantelić, M. Vukašinović & J. Meriluoto (2017) Lessons from the Užice case: how to complement analytical dataHandbook of Cyanobacterial Monitoring and Cyanotoxin Analysis (J. Meriluoto, L. Spoof & G. A. Codd, Eds.), Chichester: Wiley.

Svirčev, Z., D. Drobac, N. Tokodi, B. Mijović, G. A. Codd & J. Meriluoto (2017) Toxicology of microcystins with reference to cases of human intoxications and epidemiological investigations of exposures to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins – Archives of Toxicology, pp.1-30,  doi:10.1007/s00204-016-1921-6