Books, Special Issues, Research Papers and CYANOnews

1. Handbook of Cyanobacterial Monitoring and Cyanotoxin Analysis

Edited by Jussi Meriluoto, Lisa Spoof and Geoffrey A. Codd

Wiley (2017), ISBN: 978-1-119-06868-6 , 576 pages.


A valuable handbook containing reviews, practical methods and standard operating procedures.

A valuable and practical working handbook containing introductory and specialist content that tackles a major and growing field of environmental, microbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring and analysis

Includes introductory reviews, practical analytical chapters and a comprehensive listing of almost thirty Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

For use in the laboratory, in academic and government institutions and industrial settings.

Available from Wiley and

2. CYANOCOST Special Issue : Cyanobacterial blooms. Ecology, prevention, mitigation and control.

In Aquatic Ecology (2016), Vol. 50, Number 3. (Springer)

Edited by Petra Visser, Bastiaan Ibelings, Jutta Fastner, Myriam Bormans


Abstract (from the Editorial):

This is the Editorial to a Special Issue entitled “Cyanobacterial blooms. Ecology, prevention, mitigation and control”. The Special Issue is a product of a European COST Action, CYANOCOST. In this Special Issue, contributions describe methods currently available for the management of cyanobacterial blooms, a key issue threatening the ecological functioning of lakes and the ecosystem services they provide . Contributions start with a section on the prevention of blooms, through the restriction of nutrient availability for cyanobacterial development at three levels: (1) in the catchment, (2) at the inflow to the lake and (3) in-lake methods, including nutrient release from the sediment. Then follows a section on control of blooms where blooms could be formed in the lake, but the chosen treatment restricts cyanobacterial growth to a level where risks and negative effects are minimal, e.g., artificial mixing, flushing or biomanipulation. The Special Issue continues with contributions on mitigation where blooms do develop, but physical and chemical methods mitigate the negative effects. For effective control key traits of the dominant cyanobacteria, characteristics of the lake system and an adequate design of the control method must come together. Each contribution answers questions like: what is the proposed or proven working mechanism of a given method? What have been the successes and failures? What are the reasons for success or failure? How is success linked to characteristics of the waterbody being treated? The Special Issue is concluded with contributions aiming at social and political aspects of bloom management .

3. Molecular Tools for the Detection and Quantification of Toxigenic Cyanobacteria

Edited by Rainer Kurmayer, Kaarina Sivonen, Annick Wilmotte, Nico Salmaso

Wiley (2017), ISBN: 978-1-119-33210-7, 276 pages.


In freshwater and brackish water systems, cyanobacteria form harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) because of cyanotoxin production. Molecular methods have significantly increased our understanding on the distribution of genes involved in the production of toxins within the phylum of cyanobacteria. This book is designed as a handbook describing the molecular monitoring of toxigenicity and diversity of cyanobacteria in surface waters including lakes, rivers, drinking water reservoirs but also in food supplements. This handbook, edited by Rainer Kurmayer, Kaarina Sivonen, Annick Wilmotte and Nico Salmaso is the first one of its type providing up-to-date overviews plus the necessary scientific basis for the subsequent use of molecular tools, qualitative and quantitative analyses and the interpretation of the results.

Although genetic methods are only able to indicate the potential of toxin synthesis it is possible that molecular detection tools will also support risk assessment in the future. On the other hand if the cyanobacteria do not have genes for toxin production they are not able to produce a specific toxin. The use of molecular tools in monitoring comprises (i) Early warning (i.e. waterbodies bearing a risk in toxic bloom formation could be identified early on in the growing season possibly assisting in an economically more efficient application of cyanotoxin detection techniques), (ii) Understanding environmental drivers (i.e. early identification of toxigenic genotype occurrence may lead to a more detailed recording of environmental factors potentially influencing the abundance of toxigenic genotypes), (iii) Identifying toxigenic cyanobacteria (i.e. by sequencing of PCR amplified DNA fragments indicative of cyanotoxin synthesis).

44 standardized operational protocols (SOPs) written by 37 scientists participating in the CYANOCOST network describe the steps of water (food supplement) sampling (six protocols), cyanobacterial strain isolation and purification (six protocols) and taxonomic assignment (two protocols), nucleic acid extraction (eight protocols) and downstream analysis including conventional PCR (nine protocols) as well as qPCR (eight protocols) but also diagnostic and transcriptomic microarray (two protocols), genotyping (one protocol) and community characterization by Next Generation Sequencing techniques (two protocols). A list of toxic strains containing the respective target genes and which are available through international culture collections has been compiled and will serve as reference materials and control measures to make sure that a specific molecular method works. Finally the application of molecular tools is reviewed with regard to environmental samples but also with regard to quality control in microalga biomass production.

The handbook is intended to be used by trained professionals analyzing cyanobacterial toxigenicity and diversity in water samples in the laboratory in both academic and governmental institutions, as well as technical offices and agencies which are in charge of water body surveillance and monitoring. Students will learn important methods’ standards of essential protocols including steps from sampling until results evaluation.

Download a flyer of the two published CYANOCOST books here.

Coming soon :

  • CYANOCOST Special Issue in AIOL
  • Water Treatment for Purification from Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins, Wiley (book).

 Research Papers that acknowledge CYANOCOST (updated 30/9/2016):

CYANOCOST Published Papers.pdf

We encourage CYANOCOST members and researchers who are connected to the network to acknowledge CYANOCOST in their published papers, if they think that CYANOCOST has contributed to the work (e.g. sharing of knowledge, exchange of ideas, workshops, short-term scientific missions, working groups etc). CYANOCOST papers are disseminated to the wider academic/research/citizen communities through the CYANOCOST website, facebook, twitter and Newsletters and they receive much attention as shown from metrics such as Altmetric.


CYANOnews Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2017

CYANOnews Issue 2, Mar-Apr 2017

CYANOnews Issue 3 May_Jun 2017

CYANOnews Issue 4 Sep_Oct 2017